The ACMI business is dominated by the regional segment and is growing fast in Europe 

The practice of a sizeable airline subcontracting its regional flying to a partner airline is widely known in the United States. Such operations—a form of ACMI flying, where the operating carrier provides the aircraft, crew, maintenance, and insurance (also known as wet leasing)—have, however, only recently begun to take hold in Europe, but they are growing rapidly.

While ACMI short-term cover for both operational gaps and imported seasonal capacity often switches between providers, the strategic outsourcing of production on a permanent basis involves multi-year contracts. These are the deals which are becoming more prevalent in Europe, to such an extent that the regional airline market is undergoing a transformation which is likely to lead to consolidation into a small number of well-financed, agile wet-lease capacity providers of substantial scale in terms of fleet, sitting alongside a number of independent regional carriers of varying size.

Shifting the strategy

The drivers pushing airlines to pursue ACMI as a strategic option in Europe are multiple. Flexibility, focus, and risk management are among those cited by Cathal O'Connell, chief commercial officer of CityJet, which operates services on behalf of three carriers, with a fourth starting at the end of October 2018. “Customer airlines of ACMI providers commit to the capacity for a duration of their own choosing, have no long-term interest in the aircraft asset, acquisition, maintenance, adoption onto their AOC, or value," he explains. “Also, those customer airlines do not need to concern themselves with the recruitment, training, or retention of crews.

“The customer airline can focus on their own fleet and resources and contract with ACMI providers to worry about smaller fleets and, to a certain extent, the more difficult end of the market to recruit crews into," O'Connell adds. “What they get for a fixed hourly rate is an aircraft which will turn up at the gate and fly their passengers on their schedule. In Europe in particular, it is this flexibility and risk management—rather than achieving a lower operating cost—which drives such strategies."

As VP of external production at SAS Scandinavian Airlines System, Mikael Wångdahl leads the procurement and oversight of his airline's ACMI partners. He agrees that major airlines benefit from using partners to secure efficient regional aircraft operations. “There are many reasons, such as simplifying your own operation both in organization and fleet. By simplification, you are able to focus on your core business and by doing so you can enhance your cost-effectiveness," Wångdahl observes. “You also benefit by mixing large and small aircraft, which creates possibilities to better match your capacity to the need on destinations and over different seasons."

Little wonder then that ACMI flying now accounts for 22 percent of all flying in Europe's regional segment. In absolute terms, ACMI regional services have grown by 66 percent over the last five years, during which time the average number of seats per aircraft used has increased by seven percent.

Attractive rates

While flexibility, as O'Connell claims, is important to major carriers, every ACMI provider needs to be able to offer attractive rates to win contracts—and that means lower costs in the areas of both staff and equipment. Operators, therefore, look for aircraft which offer the best all-round economics plus reliability. As O'Connell says, it needs to turn up at the gate.

The largest single regional ACMI operator in Europe is Air Nostrum, which operates on behalf of Iberia. Its jets of choice are the Bombardier CRJ900 and CRJ1000. And of the three types operated by CityJet, its 22 CRJ900s form the largest fleet.